आचार्य रामचन्द्र शुक्ल हिन्दी आलोचना के अधिनायक आचार्य हैं । बीसवीं शताब्दी की आलोचना और साहित्येतिहास लेखन में जितना आचार्य शुक्ल को विभिन्न मत-मतान्तरों के तहत पक्ष-विपक्ष में उद्धृत किया गया है उतना किसी दूसरे आलोचक और इतिहासकार को नहीं 1 शुक्ल जी ने हिन्दी आलोचना और इतिहास को एक जाग्रत सामाजिक-साहित्यिक दिशाबोध प्रदान किया । वे सच्चे अर्थों में एक लोकधर्मी प्रगतिशील आलोचक थे । शुक्ल जी की पहचान एक विचारपरक, दृष्टि- सजग, वैज्ञानिक चेतना सम्पन्न निबन्धकार की है । उनके निबन्धों का वितान व्यापक है । साहित्य, कला, धर्म, भाषा, संस्कृति, राजनीति, अर्थनीति, समाज-चिन्ता, राष्ट्रबोध इत्यादि सभी विषयों पर उन्होंने विचारपूर्ण, अर्थगर्भित निबंधों/लेखों की रचना की है । गद्य विधा में निबन्ध को महत्वपूर्ण विचार विनिमय के एक गम्भीर माध्यम के रूप में स्थापित करने का श्रेय आचार्य शुक्ला को है । शुक्ल जी के द्वारा विविध विषयों पर लिखे श्रेष्ठ साहित्यिक और वैचारिक निबंधों का चयन इस पुस्तक का प्रेय है । संकलित निबंधों में शुक्ल जी के शास्त्र और समाज दोनों का निदर्शन अपने मुकम्मल परिपाक में एक साथ मिलता है ।
Biography of Acharya Pandit Ramchandra Shukla
Acharya Pandit Ramchandra Shukla, a great Hindi poetry and prose writer, was born at 4th October in the year 1884 in a small village named Agona, Basti of the UP state during the British rule and died in the year 1941. Commonly, he is known as the Acharya Shukla by his lovers. His father name was Pandit Chandrabali Shukla. He got married to the Savitri Devi and became father of the two sons and three daughters (Keshav Chandra, Gokul Chandra and Vidhya, Durgavati, Kamla).
First he has started writing the Hindi literature history in a scientific system after an extensive and investigational research. He had published his first writings known as the Hindi Sahitya Ka Itihaas in the year 1928. Acharya Ramchandra Shukla was the great sahityakar of the 20th century. He was the famous personality of the Hindi sahitya who has started the scientific criticism in Hindi. He has established his position at the high level by writing the Hindi essays. He has given his own emotions, feelings as well as his great views in his writings.
Whole family of him has shifted to the Mirjapur district of the UP state as his father was posted there. At the time when he lost his mother, he was just of 9. He was interested in getting more education from his childhood but he has never been available with the school environment for his education. However, he has passed the entrance exams of the F.A. in anyways. His father always wanted him to do the job in the Tahsil, but he wanted to get some higher education in his life. Finally he has been sent by his father to get the education of Law to the Allahabad. But he was interested in the sahitya instead of the Law. He became unsuccessful in getting the law education. His father tried to establish him in the Tahsil but that became not possible as he was not interested.
He got the job of the teacher in the Mishan School of the Mirjapur district. During that time, his written essays has started to become publish in various newspapers, magzines etc. Many of his Sahityic essays have been published in the Saraswati and honored by the sahitya lovers. Hindi Sahitya will always be grateful of him for his great contribution to the Hindi Sahitya. In the meantime, he became famous for his great writings, people has started to like his writings.
Nagiri Pracharini Sabha has given him the responsibility of the editorship of the Hindi Shabda Sagar as they were influenced by his eligibility, which he has completed very successfully. He was the editor of the Nagiri Pracharini Patrika. Later he has worked at the Banaras Hindu University as a Hindi teacher. He was appointed as the Adhyachha of the Hindi department after the death of the Babu Shyam Sunder Das. In the year 1941, he got died because of the heart attack.
He had worked hard and his great work was the beginning of the Hindi poetry and prose in the 6th century. After him, Hindi poetry was then developed by the Buddhist and Nath schools as well as the medieval involvements of the Amir Kabirdas, Khusro, Ravidas, Tulsidas, and again it was expanded to the modern realism by the Nirala and Premchand. Dr. Ram Vilas Sharma has highlighted the details that the great writer is opposing the feudal and courtly literature while he was evaluating the Acharya Shukla.
Some of his great writing such as, the Kavita Kya Hai was of legendary criticism and Chintamani was the most expansively read essay identifying the poetry and poetics. Some of his unpublished writings such as the Chintamani-3 and Chintamani-4 has been edited and published by the Namwar Singh and Kusum Chaturvedi respectively. He had transformed the great writing named, ‘The Light of Asia’ (written by the Edwin Arnold) into the Buddha Charit and transformed another writing named ‘The Riddles of Universe’ (written by the German scholar Ernst Haeckel) into the Vishwa Prapanch in order to improve the worldview of Hindi speakers.
Acharya Shukla was started his life journey by writing a Hindi poem and an article known as the “Prachin Bharatiyoin Ka Pahirava” and his first English published essay known as the, “What Has India to do”. He has published his first English essay at his 17. Few years after, in 1921 he wrote another writing named, “Non-cooperation and Non-mercantile Classes of India”. He taught at BHU Varanasi as a teacher in the Hindi department during the Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya’s period.
He started to write a long Hindi story “Gyarah Varsh Ka Samay”. Some of his original poem collection is “Madhushrota” including the adolescent hunger for hills, waterfalls, rocks, birds, crops and his childhood images. His first writing the “Hindi Sahitya ka Itihaas” is known as an authentic Hindi literature. He got married to the Savitri Devi and became the father of the two sons and three daughters (named Keshav Chandra, Gokul Chandra and Vidhya, Durgavati, Kamla).
Chintamani of Acharya Ramchandra Shukla
Chintamani is the most famous essay written by him which is the expansively read essay identifying the poetry and poetics. His wonderful collection known as Chintamani was originally published in two volumes of essays which was based on the real emotions such as the anger and hatred. Some of his unpublished writings such as the Chintamani-3 and Chintamani-4 has been edited and published by the Namwar Singh and Kusum Chaturvedi respectively. Some of the other essays related to the Chintamani are Chintamani Aalochanatamak Nibandh, Chintamani (Bhag–1 Vicharatmak) and Chintamani (Bhag–1 Alochnatmak).
Books of Acharya Ramchandra Shukla
- Hindi Sahitya Ka Itihas
- Lokjagaran Aur Hindi Sahitya
- Jaysi Granthawali
- Shreisth Nibandh
- Adarsh Jivan
- Goswami Tulsidas
- Megasthnese Ka Bharatvarshiya Varnan
- Kalpana Ka Anand
- Hindi Shabdasagar
- Nagiri Pracharini Patrika
- Bhramargit Sar
- Malik Mohammad Jayasi
- Ras Mimansa
- Kala Aur Adhunika Pravrttiyam
- Gyarah Varsh Ka Samay
- Shri Radhakrishnan
- Buddha Charit
- Abhimanyu Vadh
Essays of Acharya Ramchandra Shukla
- Manas Ki Dharm Bhoomi
- Rasatmak Bodh ke Vividh Roop
- Tulsi Ka Bhakti Marg
- Kavya Men Rahasyavad
- Kavya Men Abhibyanjanavad
- Kavita Kya hai
- Bhartendu Harishchandra
- Chintamani Aalochanatamak Nibandh
- Chintamani (Bhag–1 Vicharatmak)
- Chintamani (Bhag–1 Alochnatmak)
- Kavya me Loka Mangal Ki Sadhana
- Saharikaran Aur Vyakti Vaichitriyavad
- Vichar-Vithi Kavya Men Rahasyavad
- Shukla Ke Patra Shri Kedarnath Pathak Ke Nam
- Shukla Ke Patra Shri Raikrishn Das Ke Nam
- Shukla Ke Patra Rambihari Shukla Ke Nam
- Shukla Ke Patra Madhav Prasad Ke Nam
- Shukla Ke Patra Shri Viyogihari Ke Nam
- Shukla Ke Patra Pandit Ayodhyanath Sharma Ke Nam
- Shukla Ke Patra Pandit Kishoriprasad Vajpai Ke Nam
- Shukla Ke Patra Shri Surendra Nath Tripathi Ke Nam
- Shukla Ka Hindi Premiyon Se Anurodh
Publications of the Acharya Ram Chandra Shukla Sahitya Shodh Sansthan
- Nirvachit Prabandh Sankalan
- Nirala Aur Nazrul Ka Rashtriya Chintan
- Naya Mandand
- Sadi Ke Ant Mein Hindi
Shukla Sahitya Shodh Sansthan is a literary activities related research institute, was established after his name in the year 1972. An occasionally publishing journal of Hindi by this institute is, The Naya Mandand in the editorship of the Kusum Chaturvedi. Chandra Shekhar and Kusum Chaturvedi together with Mukta have written the two biographies consequently on the Acharya Pandit Ramchandra Shukla.
Some of the Major Works on Him
- Acharya Ram Chandra Shukla by the Professor Joseph Mundasshweri.
- Acharya Shukla Ka Kavi Vyaktitva by Rakesh kumar.
- Acharya Ram Chandra Shukla aur Hindi Alochana by the Ram Vilas Sharma.
- Lokjagran aur Acharya Shukla by the Ram Vilas Sharma.
- Alochak Ram Chandra Shukla by the Ganga Prasad Pandey.
- He was honored with the Rupees 500 by the Hindustani Academy for his writing, Kavya Men Rahasyavad.
- He was honored with the Mangala Prasad Paritoshik of rupees 1200 for his writing, chintamani by the Hindi Sahitya Sammelan Allahabad.
Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya
Lal Bahadur Shastri
Hajari Prasad Dwivedi
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