Have you ever opened up a document to sit and stare at the blank pages for awhile, not even knowing how to start writing a five-paragraph essay that’s due soon? Most of us have. Essay writing can seem overwhelming at times, but breaking it down into sections helps most people write a great essay. Let’s see how.
First, figure out what subject matter will be about. Is this an assignment your teacher gave you with a specific topic, or do you have to find a topic of your own?
When you decide on the topic, ask yourself the following five W questions: Who is this about? What is this about? When and where did this happen? Why is it important? And, last but not least, how did it happen?
Second, research facts that backup your thesis, the argument or point of your essay. Research facts and figures, as well as anecdotal, or interesting supplemental, material that will bring life to your essay.
Third, start the actual writing process by creating a simple outline. This will help you organize your thoughts so writing will be all the easier for you. This is where you can figure out how much information you have researched, as well as determine how you want to go about fleshing out your essay’s argument.
For instance, an outline would look similar to this one I used in writing this essay:
I. Tips on how to write a five-paragraph essay
A. Research topic:
i. Read what other Wyzant tutors have written about this topic
ii. Read what other writers have written about this topic online
iii. Start jotting down my own tips that I've used to teach other students about writing essays
B. Determine thesis:
i. Writing a five-paragraph essay is not difficult once the writer has streamlined his or her research and thoughts
C. Write outline
i. This is my outline!
D. Write essay
i. Introduction - one paragraph introducing the subject and why it's an important topic for the reader. It establishes
the who, what, when, and where.
ii. Body - three paragraphs backing up the introduction. This part establishes the how and the why.
iii. Conclusion - one paragraph tying together the essay's argument.
Introduction of the Essay
I recommend writing a brief introduction to start. This sets the stage for your essay. For the first draft, your introduction does not need to be spectacular. It only needs to answer three of the four W questions, who, what, where and when. You can elaborate more with the introduction after writing the body.
Body of the Essay
The body is sometimes the easiest part of the essay to write. In the body, it’s throwing in all the research you’ve found. Thankfully, with Microsoft Word and other related programs, you can throw in all the research you’ve done and then move around sentences that make a better. Think of it as throwing all the ingredients in a stew, and then adding, removing, and mixing ingredients as you need.
The key for writing the body is to think of it in three separate parts. The first paragraph should explain one or two facts with backup research. The second paragraph should pick one or two more related facts. The third paragraph follows the same recipe.
To start with the first body paragraph, pick a fact or statement that seems most important for your essay’s thesis. This is one that you feel most passionately or strongly about, one that makes complete sense to you. This is one that’s usually easiest to write because you have somehow connected with this fact or statement and know it to be true for the purpose of your essay.
Write one or two sentences about this fact, then provide evidence in two more sentences that back up the introduction and provide a simple yet effective argument. Do the same for the second and third paragraphs. But in this case, the second argument should contain the second most important argument or point, and the third paragraph the third most important argument or point. By this time, you will have completed the body of your essay.
Pretty simple, right?
Conclusion of the Essay
The concluding paragraph is little more than a revised version of your introduction. It should not make any new statements, but instead only serve to reaffirm or re-strengthen your thesis statement that you made in the introduction. The conclusion is the place to make one last effort to explain your thesis and sum up the points you made in the body of your essay. The last sentence should be a very concise and simple statement that puts a point at the end of the essay. It may even be something like a call to action in a persuasive essay like this one here.
When you break down how to write the essay, it will no longer seem as overwhelming to write. It’s just about taking the time to collect not only your thoughts, but also the research and the outline, of your paper. A blank page is only the start of the writing process. Think of it as a canvas to paint your words. It’s about expressing yourself through writing in a very practical yet easy manner. You can do it, so now let’s get to it!
Basic College Writing Tips
Welcome to College: Say Goodbye to the Five-Paragraph Essay
Many students learned in high school to write what is commonly known as the five paragraph essay. This handout is designed to help you see the weaknesses of that syle of essay and to help you learn to write something more complex that that formulaic essay. The Five Paragraph Essay consists of (surprise!) five paragraphs that follow a very structured format. The first paragraph contains a one sentence (or maybe a two sentence) thesis statement, which is followed by three sentences that briefly describe what will be discussed in the three body paragraphs. These three sentences are sometimes referred to as the pathway, since they show where the paper will go. There may then be a transitional sentence to the next paragraph, which discusses the topic of the first pathway sentence. The next two body paragraphs develop and detail the next two pathway sentences. The conclusion, the fifth paragraph, restates and summarizes the arguments of the essay, sometimes beginning with the phrase, In conclusion.
The strength of the five paragraph essay is that it is highly structured, and fairly easy to teach. It provides a very formulaic style of writing that many students find helpful. However, once you reach the college level, the weaknesses outweigh the strengths. The five paragraph essay encourages students to engage only on the surface level without attaining the level of cogency demanded by college writing. In its broad, overarching style, it has a tendency to encourage overly general thesis statements that lead to poorly developed and unfocused papers. And its formulaic nature makes it prone to produce papers with stilted organization. Not to mention that it is next to impossible to write five pages of one without repeating yourself. The only time the five paragraph essay may be useful in college is when you are writing answers to brief essay questions on exams. In timed situations that do not allow you to come up with a complex organization, the five pragraph essay format can be helpful to structure your ideas if you are easily overwhelmed by the number of points you have to make.
So, if you're not allowed to write the kind of essay your high school teachers taught you, what exactly else are you supposed to write? The easiest thing to remember is that with a few sentence level changes, each pathway sentence from a traditional five paragraph essay would make a great working thesis for the kind of argumentative, thesis-driven paper that you are asked to write in college. Heres an example in answer to the prompt, What fundamental change would improve high school education ?.
High school education has several problems which must be solved to prepare Americas youth for the challenges of the 21st century. Overcrowded classrooms mean that students do not receive the individualized attention that they need to succeed. Increasing rates of crime are making students afraid to come to school, and preventing students from concentrating while they are there. In addition, the lack of technological resources like state of the art computers is preventing students from being competitive in the workplace after graduation. These problems all mean that some students are falling behind.
When students fall behind, they need the attention of an instructor one on one to catch up. Because classrooms are so crowded, teachers are overworked. As a result. . .
High schools across the country are bulging at the seams. As increasing numbers of Americans realize that education is necessary to attaining the American dream, our schools grow more crowded. At the same time, budget cuts have caused schools to cut back on the number of teachers. As the number of teachers has dropped, and classrooms have become more crowded, the quality of education in our public schools has declined. With a higher workload, burnout among even the best teachers has increased, and fewer people see teaching as the desirable profession they once did. Solving the problem of overcrowding by strictly limiting class size to 20 students would allow more students to get the instruction they need to become productive members of society, which is the most important goal of high school education in America today.
Can you see the difference between the two parargraphs? Let's take a closer look:
|5 Para Essay||College Essay|
|High school education has several problems which||Solving theproblem of overcrowding would allow more|
|must be solved to prepare Americas youth for the||students toget the instruction they need to become|
|challenges of the 21st century.||productive members of society whichis the most|
|important goal of high school education in America today.|
|This thesis states the obvious. It is so general that||This statement narrows the topic down to a specific problem:|
|just about anything you threw into the essay could be used||overcrowding. It also states why overcrowding is a problem.|
|to support it but you would end up with a very unfocused||The sentence implies that overcrowding is preventing at least some students|
|essay. Also note the use of vague wording ||from getting the education they need to|
|several problems. Finally, a college paper must take a||become productive members of society, which the thesis|
|position that a rational person would disagree with.||itself identifies as a primary goal of high school education.|
|What rational person would not agree with this sentence?||There are lots of rational people who would choose another|
|problem as the worst obstacle facing high school education.|
|There are also lots of rational people who would argue for a|
|different primary goal of high school education.|
Many students when transitioning from the 5 paragraph essay to the college essay express concern about what else to put in the introductory paragraph. Certainly, the five paragraph essay gives you a clear formula for what else to include in the introduction. However, to excel at college writing, students need to think about the function of the introductory paragraph. Introductory pararaphs are designed to give readers a preview of the essay topic and introduce the writer's point of view on the subject. You do not need to have one sentence in the introduction for each paragraph in the paper. You simply need to give enough of an overview of where you are going to give readers a sense of the overall arc of your argument. An introduction is kind of like a movie preview--it tells the reader enough that he or she knows what to expect, but it does not give a scene by scene breakdown of the movie.
Even though a more complex essay will not have a one to one correspondance of setences to paragraphs, readers can still make a good guess about what will be included in that kind of essay. Here is what an outline for the essays that follow each of those thesis statements and introductory pararaphs might look like:
|5 Para Essay||College Essay|
|1. Overcrowding interferes with instruction.||1.The primary goal of a high school education is to make all students, not just a certain select few,|
|2. Increasing crime makes students afraid/unable to work.||into productive members of society.|
|3. No tech resources means not prepared for work force.||2. As jobs become more competitive, more people need and are seeking an education.|
|4. Conclusion||3. Budget cuts mean fewer teachers in schools, which reduces the quality of classroom instruction.|
|4. Teachers get burned out when classes are overcrowded.|
|5. In overcrowded classrooms, too many students get lost or slip through the cracks.|
|6. Conclusion suggesting what the result of solving the problems might be for society.|
Obviously, the second essay is going to come out longer and more complex than the first. This seems counterintuitive to many students at first glance. You would think that an essay with three main points would be longer than one with one main point. The difference is that the college essay asks you to ask more probing questions--to examine the hows and whys behind each point and push your analysis further.